Hydraulic Fracturing (Vertical)
The use of water, sand and chemical additives pumped under high pressure to fracture subsurface non-porous rock formations such as shale to improve the flow of natural gas (or oil) into the vertically drilled hole or shaft in the earth. Original vertical wells were just a few hundred feet deep. Hydraulic fracturing is a mature technology that has been used for 60 years and today accounts for 95 percent of all new wells drilled. The use of vertical hydraulic fracturing to increase production was developed by gas companies around 1947 when Stanolind Oil and Gas Corporation used it as an experimental technique. In 1949, The Halliburton Oil Well Cementing Company received a patent for the “hydrafrac” process which they first used in 1949 on Texas and Oklahoma gas wells. Since taking those first steps with the process, gas companies have used it to drill thousands of wells throughout the United States. From 1949 through 1997, wells were vertically fracked, primarily for extraction of gas. Also see Differences Between Vertical Hydraulic Fracturing and High Volume Hydraulic Fracturing.